General Definition: A method for synthesizing the debate and resolve disagreements by explaining why one argument should win over another. May also refer to the third speech of a debate that accomplishes a similar goal.
- Public Forum: In PF, a three-minute speech used to extend key arguments/clash and weighing, as well as establish each team’s strategy for winning the debate.
- World Schools Debate: In WSD, summaries are the third pair of speeches. These speeches are set up to deal with the remaining refutation and rebuilding of the debate. There are two approaches that can be taken in a WSD summary: Point by Point Clash, which prioritizes going down the flow in order and discussing all arguments from both sides, or Three Point Crystallization, which breaks the debate down into three main areas of clash.
- British Parliamentary: In BP, summaries are the last two speeches of the round, called the “Whip” speeches. These speeches should consist of a high-level overview of the round, summarizing key points of clash between all teams, and especially emphasizing the novelty and importance of your partner’s extension argument. Ideally, whip speeches are organized around two to three thematic questions, such as “which side helps the vulnerable”.
- Canadian National Debate Format: In CNDF, these are the last two speeches of the debate, both of which are 4 minutes. Summary speakers should review the arguments made by both sides in the debate, highlight main themes of clash, and provide comparative weighing to convince the judge to vote for their side.